Oral hygiene is an important lifestyle factor, and addressing early manifestations of disease originating in the mouth can help maintain proper function and health throughout the body.
The oral microbiome is implicated in many systemic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, respiratory infections, and cognitive decline, with the common link between them being inflammation.
Recent findings have suggested that chronic bacterial infections from periodontitis may contribute to neurodegenerative processes and thus may be lifelong risk factors for AD development.
Oral bacteria can cause neuroinflammation and damage to neuronal cells, which, over time, contributes to cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases like AD. Identifying the root causes of a patient’s oral dysbiosis may help to inform the most effective treatment strategy to optimize both mouth and brain health.
Altered microbiota in the oral cavity can spread via the lymphatic and vascular systems, infecting tissue in the brain and indirectly contributing to inflammatory pathways through immune system activation.5 P. gingivalis can enter the bloodstream and perivascular spaces when localized tissue trauma occurs from brushing, flossing, and chewing, or in cases of gingival bleeding or bacterial permeation of weakened periodontal tissue.
Much like the gut microbiome, the therapeutic use of probiotics has shown effectiveness in maintaining microbial balance in the mouth. Research has demonstrated that oral probiotics have similar effects of promoting microbiota diversity and reducing plaque accumulation as manual disruption of the biofilm through brushing and flossing.23-24 Several bacterial strains have demonstrated inhibitory effects on pathogen growth, the formation of oral biofilms, and the disruption of pre-formed biofilms, including Lactobacillus,23-26 Bifidobacterium,24 Lactococcus,27 and Streptococcus.25,26 A 2021 study found that Streptococcus salivarius is able to adhere to gingival fibroblasts and inhibit inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and IL-8 production in the presence of anaerobic bacteria such as P. gingivalis.28 Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were also shown to improve the clinical indicators of periodontitis such as attachment loss and pocket depth and bleeding on probing.26 In addition to their efficacy as antimicrobial agents, the use of these commensal bacteria may also support the integrity of oral tissue and, in turn, is likely to decrease the incidence of bacterial translocation through permeation.
Improving oral health may help to minimize risk factors associated with the onset of a range of chronic neurodegenerative conditions, including dementia.
Lifestyle factors that can optimize oral health:
Increase dietary intake of probiotic containing foods
Nitrite rick foods will help optimize oral health and decrease overall bacterial burden
Dail brushing, flossing
Oil pulling – daily with organic sesame oil or coconut oil.
- Borsa L, Dubois M, Sacco G, Lupi L. Analysis the link between periodontal diseases and Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(17):9312. doi:3390/ijerph18179312
- Maitre Y, Mahalli R, Micheneau P, Delpierre A, Amador G, Denis F. Evidence and therapeutic perspectives in the relationship between the oral microbiome and Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(21):11157. doi:3390/ijerph182111157
- Kriebel K, Hieke C, Müller-Hilke B, Nakata M, Kreikemeyer B. Oral biofilms from symbiotic to pathogenic interactions and associated disease–connection of periodontitis and rheumatic arthritis by peptidylarginine deiminase. Front Microbiol.2018;9:53. doi:3389/fmicb.2018.00053
- Olsen I, Kell DB, Pretorius E. Is Porphyromonas gingivalis involved in Parkinson’s disease? Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020;39(11):2013-2018. doi:1007/s10096-020-03944-2
- Rowisnka I, Szyperska-Slaska A, Zariczny P, Paslawski R, Kramkowski K, Kowalczyk P. The influence of diet on oxidative stress and inflammation induced by bacterial biofilms in the human oral cavity. Materials (Basel). 2021;14(6):1444. doi:3390/ma14061444